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Philosopher of the month: Mullā Sadrā [quiz]

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This June, the OUP Philosophy team honours Mullā Sadrā (1571 – 1640) as their Philosopher of the Month. Mullā Sadrā was born in Shiraz, southern Iran, but moved around when he was studying and for the many pilgrimages he embarked on in in his lifetime. He later returned to Shiraz when he began teaching and taking on followers of his philosophy. He is best known for his work on Transcendent Wisdom, the philosophical school he founded, along with his work on metaphysics and proving the existence of God. Sadrā also worked in a range of other fields including epistemology, psychology, theology, and mysticism. How much do you know about the life and work of Mullā Sadrā? Test your knowledge with our quiz below.   Quiz image credit: Inside of the House of Mulla Sadra in Kahak. CC-BY-SA-4.0 via Wikimedia Commons. Featured image credit: Building in Qom, Iran by Mostafa Meraji. CC-BY-SA-4.0 via Wikimedia Commons. The post Philosopher of the month: Mullā Sadrā [quiz] appeared first. . .

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News source: OUPblog » Philosophy

Gun control is more complex than you think

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In the public debate over gun control, many people talk as if our only options are to support or oppose it. Although some endorse more expansive views, many still talk as if our choices are quite limited: whether to support or oppose a small number of specific gun control proposals–for example, banning assault weapons. Both suppositions oversimplify and distort our choices. In reality, we face three intermingled policy questions: Whom should we permit to own firearms? Which guns should they be permitted to own? How should we regulate the guns they may own? Virtually no one thinks we should permit everyone—two-year-olds, former violent felons, or the demonstrably mentally ill—to own guns, nor that we should permit private citizens to own all types of firearms—for instance, bazookas and grenade launchers. Finally, most everyone realizes we need additional regulations: when, where, and how those who legitimately own firearms can purchase or obtain them (a licensed dealer or out of the. . .

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News source: OUPblog » Philosophy

The Kuleshov Fallacy

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The face has long been regarded as one of the major weapons in the arsenal of cinema—as a tool of characterization, a source of visual fascination, and not least, as a vehicle of emotional expression. Research on emotion from psychology and other disciplines offers a rich resource illuminating the world of expressive behavior on which filmmakers draw, and shape to their own artistic ends, as I discuss in an earlier blog here. But there is an influential idea in the history of film—part of the lore of film theory, exerting considerable influence among filmmakers—which holds that facial expression is at most of secondary importance in the way that films generate meaning and emotional impact. That idea is the “Kuleshov effect,” named after Lev Kuleshov, one of the heroic generation of Soviet filmmakers who put Soviet cinema at the forefront of the new medium in the 1920s. This vanguard introduced numerous innovations and inaugurated (alongside filmmakers and critics elsewhere in Europe). . .

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News source: OUPblog » Philosophy

Walter Chatton

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[Revised entry by Rondo Keele and Jenny Pelletier on June 22, 2018. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Walter Chatton or more rarely "Catton" (c. 1290 - 1343) was an English theologian and philosopher who trained at Oxford around the same time as his famous colleague and frequent philosophical target, William of Ockham. More inclined to speculative metaphysics and less skeptical of reason than Ockham, Chatton was one of the most energetic and gifted critics of the influential brand of nominalism which arose in early fourteenth-century England around Ockham. As a constructive...

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News source: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Dispositions

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[Revised entry by Sungho Choi and Michael Fara on June 22, 2018. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, supplement.html] A glass has certain dispositions, for example the disposition to shatter when struck. But what is this disposition? It seems on the one hand to be a perfectly real property, a genuine respect of similarity common to glasses, china cups, and anything else fragile. Yet on the other hand, the glass's disposition seems mysterious, 'ethereal' (as Goodman (1954) put it) in a way that, say, its size and shape are not. For its disposition, it seems, has to do only with its possibly shattering in...

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News source: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Dialetheism

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[Revised entry by Graham Priest, Francesco Berto, and Zach Weber on June 22, 2018. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] A dialetheia is a sentence, (A), such that both it and its negation, (neg A), are true. If falsity is assumed to be the truth of negation, a dialetheia is a sentence which is both true and false. Such a sentence is, or has, what is called a truth value glut, in distinction to a gap, a sentence that is neither true nor false. (We shall talk of sentences throughout this entry; but one could run the definition in terms of propositions, statements, or whatever one takes as one's favourite truth-bearer: this would make little difference in the context.)...

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News source: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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